Keen Independent Research
Phone: (303) 3858515
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172 N. Washington Street
Wickenburg , AZ 85390
100 Fillmore Street, 5th Floor
Denver , CO 80206

Disparity Studies

Disparity Studies

Disparity studies help government agencies assist historically marginalized groups such as minority- and woman-owned businesses. Some studies focus on equity in contracting, while others examine issues such as equity in employment. Since the 1989 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Croson, Keen Independent staff have completed about 200 disparity studies. Courts, the U.S. Department of Justice and USDOT have approved our methodology. No program based on one of our studies has been successfully challenged in court.

How We Do It

We examine equity based on race/ethnicity, gender, LGBTQIA+, veteran status and (dis)ability through:

  • Successful collection of public agency contract and subcontract data or employment data
  • Surveys to identify firms qualified, willing and able to perform an agency’s contracts
  • Disparity analysis including Monte Carlo simulations and other statistical tests
  • Review of procurement processes, bids and proposals
  • Quantitative research on labor markets, business ownership, access to capital and business success
  • Community engagement, In-depth interviews, focus groups, virtual workshops and town halls
  • Expertise in regulations for USDOT, HUD and EPA programs (including Federal DBE Program)
  • Experience with multi-jurisdictional studies and efforts to promote private sector partnerships
  • Detailed recommendations, program design and implementation support.

Selected Project Examples

  • City of Atlanta Disparity Study, GA
  • City of Kansas City Workforce Disparity Study, MO
  • City of New Orleans Disparity Study, LA
  • Clark County School District Disparity Study, NV
  • Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Availability Study
  • Oregon Department of Transportation Disparity Study
  • Oregon Department of Aviation Statewide DBE Disparity Study
  • San Antonio Housing Authority Disparity Study, TX
  • State of Colorado Disparity Study
  • State of Minnesota Joint Disparity Study
  • Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Disparity Study, DC

Sectors We Serve

  • Studies that examine equity based on race, ethnicity, gender, LGBTQIA+, veteran status, (dis)ability
  • Public agencies that implement the DBE Program or other federal programs
  • States, cities, counties and other local governments
  • Transportation agencies, including state DOTs, transit agencies and airports